Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant viruses?
A) in or near the active site
B) at an allosteric site
C) at a cofactor binding site
D) in regions of the protein that determine packaging into the virus capsid
E) such mutations could occur anywhere with equal probability
As the body's key hormones fall below the minimum required reserve for normal function and output fails, the body may down-regulate the amount needed to preserve what is on hand for only the most essential body functions . This near-failure state (Phase D) is quite serious and requires professional attention. This is a state of extreme low energy as the body tries to conserve to survive. Normally helpful nutrients may backfire with paradoxical responses being the hallmark. Those in Phase D are usually bedridden most of the time. Normal daily chores need ambulatory help. Traditional macro-nutritional approaches may be helpful. But, the body may continue to decompensate. In these cases, a carefully titrated micro-nutritional program may be necessary to help the restore the body.
Autosomal recessive PKD is caused by a mutation in the autosomal recessive PKD gene, called PKHD1. Other genes for the disease might exist but have not yet been discovered by scientists. We all carry two copies of every gene. Parents who do not have PKD can have a child with the disease if both parents carry one copy of the abnormal gene and both pass that gene copy to their baby. The chance of the child having autosomal recessive PKD when both parents carry the abnormal gene is 25 percent. If only one parent carries the abnormal gene, the baby cannot get autosomal recessive PKD but could ultimately pass the abnormal gene to his or her children.