Steroid absorption enterohepatic recycling

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A recently synthesized novel colon-specific dexamethasone prodrug, dexamethasone-beta-D-glucuronide, delivers efficacious amounts of dexamethasone to the colon with limited adrenal suppressive effects. During experimentally induced colitis in rats, the dexamethasone prodrug is significantly more potent than free dexamethasone in improving colonic fluid and electrolyte absorptive injury. The present studies examined whether the improvement in colonic absorption seen with the prodrug occurred as a consequence of alterations in sodium and chloride epithelial transport. The efficacy of the dexamethasone prodrug and free dexamethasone were tested in an acetic acid-induced rat model of colitis. Healing of the induced colitis was assessed by measuring net colonic fluid absorption and surface area ulceration. Transmural unidirectional fluxes of 22Na and 36Cl across sheets of colonic mucosa were measured in Ussing chambers. Treatment of colitis with the prodrug delivered a sixfold higher concentration of dexamethasone to the colon than did treatment with the free drug. The prodrug accelerated healing of colitis by returning in vivo colonic fluid absorption to normal and virtually eliminated colonic macroscopic ulceration, whereas the free drug did not. In vitro transmural fluxes demonstrated that, in addition to repair of mucosal integrity, the prodrug enhanced electroneutral sodium chloride absorption over and above that seen in control animals or after treatment with the free drug. Both the prodrug and the free drug limited theophylline-mediated net chloride and sodium secretion, an effect that would be consistent with the antidiarrheal effect induced by these drugs in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

The most common side effect of topical corticosteroid use is skin atrophy. All topical steroids can induce atrophy, but higher potency steroids, occlusion, thinner skin, and older patient age increase the risk. The face, the backs of the hands, and intertriginous areas are particularly susceptible. Resolution often occurs after discontinuing use of these agents, but it may take months. Concurrent use of topical tretinoin (Retin-A) % may reduce the incidence of atrophy from chronic steroid applications. 30 Other side effects from topical steroids include permanent dermal atrophy, telangiectasia, and striae.

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

Steroid absorption enterohepatic recycling

steroid absorption enterohepatic recycling

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

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