Characterization of the brassinosteroid insensitive 1 genes of cotton

Several functionally distinct isoforms of the actin regulatory Mena are produced by alternative splicing during tumor progression. Forced expression of the Mena(INV) isoform drives invasion, intravasation and metastasis. However, the abundance and distribution of endogenously expressed Mena(INV) within primary tumors during progression remain unknown, as most studies to date have only assessed relative mRNA levels from dissociated tumor samples. We have developed a Mena(INV) isoform-specific monoclonal antibody and used it to examine Mena(INV) expression patterns in mouse mammary and human breast tumors. Mena(INV) expression increases during tumor progression and to examine the relationship between Mena(INV) expression and markers for epithelial or mesenchymal status, stemness, stromal cell types and hypoxic regions. Further, while Mena(INV) robustly expressed in vascularized areas of the tumor, it is not confined to cells adjacent to blood vessels. Altogether, these data demonstrate the specificity and utility of the anti-Mena(INV)-isoform specific antibody, and provide the first description of endogenous Mena(INV) protein expression in mouse and human tumors.

Regulatory T cell-mediated suppression serves as a pivotal mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation. Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) are an important subset of CD4+ T cells that prevent excessive inflammatory responses and maintain immune tolerance. The anti-inflammatory role of Tr1 cells is mediated in part by their production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), which dampens the function of both antigen-presenting cells and antigen-specific effector T cells. Additionally, Tr1 cells can kill effector and myeloid cells through the perforin-granzyme B pathway. Adoptive transfer of in vitro differentiated Tr1 cells can be used to suppress autoimmune tissue inflammation in vivo. This unit describes the in vitro stimulation of naïve murine CD4+ T cells using IL-27 to generate IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

Perhaps it had something to do with living in a dark cupboard, but Harry had always been small and skinny for his age. He looked even smaller and skinnier than he really was because all he had to wear were old clothes of Dudley’s, and Dudley was about four times bigger than he was. Harry had a thin face, knobbly knees, black hair, and bright green eyes. He wore round glasses held together with a lot of Scotch tape because of all the times Dudley had punched him on the nose. The only thing Harry liked about his own appearance was a very thin scar on his forehead that was shaped like a bolt of lightning.

Curcumin is a highly potent, nontoxic, bioactive agent found in turmeric and has been known for centuries as a household remedy to many ailments. The only disadvantage that it suffers is of low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for the preparation of nanoparticles of curcumin with a view to improve its aqueous-phase solubility and examine the effect on its antimicrobial properties. Nanoparticles of curcumin (nanocurcumin) were prepared by a process based on a wet-milling technique and were found to have a narrow particle size distribution in the range of 2-40 nm. Unlike curcumin, nanocurcumin was found to be freely dispersible in water in the absence of any surfactants. The chemical structure of nanocurcumin was the same as that of curcumin, and there was no modification during nanoparticle preparation. A minimum inhibitory concentration of nanocurcumin was determined for a variety of bacterial and fungal strains and was compared to that of curcumin. It was found that the aqueous dispersion of nanocurcumin was much more effective than curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Penicillium notatum , and Aspergillus niger . The results demonstrated that the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of curcumin markedly improved by particle size reduction up to the nano range. For the selected microorganisms, the activity of nanocurcumin was more pronounced against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, its antibacterial activity was much better than antifungal activity. The mechanism of antibacterial action of curcumin nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) analysis, which revealed that these particles entered inside the bacterial cell by completely breaking the cell wall, leading to cell death.

Characterization of the brassinosteroid insensitive 1 genes of cotton

characterization of the brassinosteroid insensitive 1 genes of cotton

Curcumin is a highly potent, nontoxic, bioactive agent found in turmeric and has been known for centuries as a household remedy to many ailments. The only disadvantage that it suffers is of low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for the preparation of nanoparticles of curcumin with a view to improve its aqueous-phase solubility and examine the effect on its antimicrobial properties. Nanoparticles of curcumin (nanocurcumin) were prepared by a process based on a wet-milling technique and were found to have a narrow particle size distribution in the range of 2-40 nm. Unlike curcumin, nanocurcumin was found to be freely dispersible in water in the absence of any surfactants. The chemical structure of nanocurcumin was the same as that of curcumin, and there was no modification during nanoparticle preparation. A minimum inhibitory concentration of nanocurcumin was determined for a variety of bacterial and fungal strains and was compared to that of curcumin. It was found that the aqueous dispersion of nanocurcumin was much more effective than curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Penicillium notatum , and Aspergillus niger . The results demonstrated that the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of curcumin markedly improved by particle size reduction up to the nano range. For the selected microorganisms, the activity of nanocurcumin was more pronounced against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, its antibacterial activity was much better than antifungal activity. The mechanism of antibacterial action of curcumin nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) analysis, which revealed that these particles entered inside the bacterial cell by completely breaking the cell wall, leading to cell death.

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